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Database management is a method of coordinating the information that supports a company’s business operations. It involves storing data and distribution to application programs and users making changes as needed and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing it from becoming damaged by unexpected failures. It’s a component of a company’s informational infrastructure that supports decision-making, corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that store data according to the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It uses the primary key to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, called attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. The most widely used type of database currently is a relational model, designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It is also easier to update data because it doesn’t require changing several databases.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support various types of databases, by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level focuses on cost, scalability and other operational concerns, such as the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level focuses on how the database is displayed in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views based on different data models and may include virtual table that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.